blue and white planet display
Gravity and Spacetime: Is Gravtiy a Force?


At the base of classical newtonion mechanics is the notion that a body’s motion can be described as a combination of inertial motion, and deviation from this inertial motion. Such deviations are caused by external forces acting on a body in accordance with Newton’s second law of motion.

The preferred inertial motions are related to the geometry of space and time: in the standard reference frames of classical mechanics, objects in free motion move along straight lines at constant speed. In modern parlance, their paths are geodesics, straight world lines in curved spacetime. According to general theory of relativity, gravity is not a force and there are no gravitational field. General theory of relativity describes gravity not as a force, but as a consequence of masses moving along straight line path in a curved spacetime caused by uneven distribution of mass. So what exactly is this spacetime? Spacetime is any mathematical model which fuses three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four dimensional manifold. Einstein described force of gravity, in his theory of general relativity, as a consequence of the curves in the fabric of spacetime. Matter like stars and planets creates distortions in spacetime that cause it to bend.

planet earth

These curves, in turn, constrict the ways in which everything in universe moves, because objects have to follow paths, geodesics, along this warped curvature. Motion due to gravity is actually motion along the twists and turns of space time. However, for most application (about 30 orders of magnitude) gravity is well approximated by Newton’s law of universal gravitation, which describes gravity as a force. This can be understood easily using an analogy between a man falling off the roof of a house and an astronaut floating in a spaceship in deep space, not near any large masses. Under general theory of relativity these two scenarios are equivalent, not just similar, where both men aren’t under any gravitational field and are perfect example of an inertial frame of reference.

Man falling off a roof would be weightless and anything dropped on his way down will remain stationary relative to him or moving in uniform motion similar to the case of astronaut in deep space where he feels no weight and all objects relative to him are in rest. There is no observable distinction between inertial motion and motion under the influence of the gravitational force

. Under classical mechanics, man falling off a roof is in gravitational field of earth but under general relativity there is no such field and man is just following a straight line path, geodesics, but because spacetime is curved around matter, in this case earth, the man seems to be accelerating at 9.8 m/s2 toward earth. Both freely falling man and astronaut are in inertial frame of reference till their motion is stopped by some other objects such as earth. Similarly objects in a gravitational field behave equivalent to objects within an accelerating enclosure. For example, an observer will see a ball fall the same way in a rocket as it does on Earth, provided that the acceleration of the rocket is equal to 9.8 m/s2 (the acceleration due to gravity at the surface of the Earth).

blue and white planet display
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This is called as the “Einstein equivalence principle” which states that “The outcome of any local non gravitational experiment in a freely falling laboratory is independent of the velocity of the laboratory and its location in spacetime” or simply the gravitational “force” as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference

. In conclusion, gravity is not the force of attraction that makes things fall straight down but consequence of curvature in spacetime due to matter.

The Indelible Impact of COVID-19 On Cybersecurity by Samyak Sanjay Sand

Article Written by Samyak Sanjay Sand – CSE at NIT Karnataka

As a result of the COVID-19 epidemic and the ensuing lockdown, more people are confined to their homes, where they have considerably more hours to spend online each day and are becoming more reliant on the Internet to receive services that they would have otherwise obtained offline.

For many years, the risks of cybercrime have been present. However, an increase in the number of Internet users mid pandemic, along with the amount of time they spend online, has presented cybercriminals with more options to use the situation to their advantage, which has, in turn, increased their potential to gain money or cause disruption. It should be noted that some of the most vulnerable groups of the population, for example, students, need to spend more time online for services like online classes.

While youngsters benefit immensely from e-learning, they are also more vulnerable to cyber risks. Not only the young but also the elderly, who used to rely on offline shopping but now have to buy what they need on the Internet, are more vulnerable to cybercrime. This tectonic change in the way we live and use the Internet has led to the proliferation of e-crimes.

Throughout the epidemic, countries worldwide reported an increase in cybercrime. For instance, in India, the Cyber and Information Security (C&IS) Division, which is responsible for cybercrime, reported a variety of scams and frauds that took the form of advertisements, emails, phoney websites, as well as phone calls and text messages. Cybercriminals are using malware, including viruses, worms, trojan horses, ransomware, and spyware, to penetrate, compromise, steal, or wipe personal data on personal computers by capitalizing on the anxieties and fears triggered by the pandemic. In addition, Italian law enforcement has identified the “Corona Anti-Virus” software.This software’s BlackNet Rat application claims to protect the user’s device from viruses but instead undermines its security and takes control, allowing the criminal to operate it remotely.

Despite the fact that the risk of being attacked will continue to exist, some mitigating methods may be beneficial to users. It is strongly advised that users use extreme caution while dealing with phishing emails and websites, exercise good cyber hygiene, connect to only trusted Wi-Fi networks, and consider using a password manager to prevent using the same password for different websites. When sharing sensitive data or downloading a file from an email, it is vital to have two separate lines of communication. Having the sender verify their identity with an SMS, WhatsApp message, or brief phone call before opening an attack email or webpage can help avert a cyberattack. When using group conference calls (MS Teams, Google Meets, Zoom, etc.), be cautious about sharing screens or transmitting images that may include sensitive information.

Ultimately, COVID-19 will forever alter our way of life through the introduction of new work styles, new cybersecurity challenges, new recommended policies, improvements in personal cleanliness, and so on. The fight against COVID-19 is not just for business, its employees, or its customers; it is a collaborative effort on everyone’s part. Consequently, post-COVID-19, users and organizations will need to re-evaluate their cyber risk management procedures, including updating network security settings, installing a good-quality VPN, and utilizing appropriate anti-virus software to ensure their system and network settings remain malware and virus-free.

purple and black galaxy illustration
Research paper guide on black holes,5

Black holes and thermodynamics

A black hole of given mass, angular momentum, and charge can have a large number of different
unobservable internal configurations which reflect the possible different initial configurations of the matter
which collapsed to produce the hole. The logarithm of this number can be regarded as the entropy of the
black hole and is a measure of the amount of information about the initial state which was lost in the
formation of the black hole. If one makes the hypothesis that the entropy is finite, one can deduce that the
black holes must emit thermal radiation at some nonzero temperature.

purple and black galaxy illustration
Photo by Adam Krypel on

Conversely, the recently derived quantum-mechanical result that black holes do emit thermal radiation at temperature κℏ2πkc, where κ is thesurface gravity, enables one to prove that the entropy is finite and is equal to c3A4Gℏ, where A is the surface areaof the event horizon or boundary of the black hole. Because black holes have negative specific heat, they
cannot be in stable thermal equilibrium except when the additional energy available is less than 1/4 the mass
of the black hole. This means that the standard statistical-mechanical canonical ensemble cannot be applied
when gravitational interactions are important. Black holes behave in a completely random and time-
symmetric way and are indistinguishable, for an external observer, from white holes. The irreversibility that
appears in the classical limit is merely a statistical effect.
Particle Creation by Black Holes

In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it
is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit
particles as if they were hot bodies with temperature
hk2πk ≈ 10−6 (M⊙M) ∘Khk2πk ≈ 10−6 (M⊙M) ∘K where k is the surface gravity of the
black hole. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black
hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than
about 1015 g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate
the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease,
there remains a Generalized Second Law: S+14AS+14A never decreases never
decreases where S is the entropy of matter outside black holes and A is the sum ofthe surface areas of the event horizons.


This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon Evanescent black holes A renormalizable theory of quantum gravity coupled to a dilaton and conformal matter in two spacetime dimensions is analyzed. The theory is shown to be exactly solvable classically. Included among the exact classical solutions are configurations describing the formation of a black hole by collapsing matter.

The problem of Hawking radiation and back reaction of the metric is analyzed to leading order in a 1N expansion, where N is the number of matter fields. The results suggest that the collapsing matter radiates away all of its energy before an event horizon has a chance to form, and black holes thereby disappear from the quantum- mechanical spectrum. It is argued that the matter asymptotically approaches a zero-energy “bound state” which can carry global quantum numbers and that a unitary S matrix including such states should exist. Black holes in higher dimensional space-times Black hole solutions to Einstein’s equations are examined in asymptotically flat N + 1 dimensional space-times.

First generalizations of Schwarzschild and Reissner- Nordstrøm solutions are examined in a discussion of static black holes in N + 1 dimensions. Then a new family of solutions is found which describe spinning black holes in higher dimensional space-times. In many respects these new solutions are similar to the familiar Kerr and Schwarzschild metrics which are recovered for N = 3. One exceptional case though is that for N ≥ 5, black holes with a fixed mass may have arbitrarily large angular momentum. 4jmNsTT3&sig=O4_P3Oiyku88s-1RuwTP7eeXEME&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=black%20holes&f=false


Black Holes and the Second Law

Black-hole physics seems to provide at least two ways in which the second law of thermodynamics may be transcended or violated:

a) Let an observer drop or lower a package of entropy into a black hole; the entropy of the exterior world decreases. Furthermore, from an exterior observer’s point of view a black hole in equilibrium has only three degrees of freedom: mass, charge and angular momentum. Thus, once the black hole has settled down to equilibrium, there is no way for the observer to determine its interior entropy. Therefore, he cannot exclude the possibility that the total entropy of the universe may have decreased in the process.

It is in this sense that the second law appears to be transcended. b) A method for violating the second law has been proposed by GEROCH: By means of a string one slowly lowers a body of rest mass m and nonzero temperature toward a Sehwarzschild black hole of mass M. By the time the body nears the horizon, its energy as measured from infinity, E=m(1−2M/r)12E=m(1−2M/r)12, is nearly zero; the body has already done work m on the agent which lowers the string. At this point the body is allowed to radiate into the black hole until its rest mass is m − Δm. Finally, by expending work m − Δm, one hauls the body back up

Project Utilisation of sludge gas for power generation through aero gas turbines

Introduction: Sludge gas from municipal sewage treatment plants is a valuable by-product, containing a high proportion of methane (CH4, 53 to 68 %), which has a calorific value in the range of 19-17 to 24.53 MJ/Nm 3. Since the gas is not easily transportable, it is convenient to utilise it in the vicinity of the sewage treatment plants, generally located at the outskirts of towns and cities.

One way to utilise this renewable energy source is to use it as fuel for internal combustion engines for mechanical or electrical power generation. In the context of the present acute shortage of electrical power in certain areas, such a scheme would certainly be helpful, particularly for standby power generation for peak demand times and for supplying industries located in the vicinity of the treatment plants. While the use of reciprocating gas engines for operation on sewage gas is well known, the present project uses gas turbines, the main advantage of which is that the capital cost would be considerably lower as compared to reciprocating engines, particularly if the turbines are derived from aero-engine applications, after their normal flying duty is completed. Such engines are available at a nominal cost within the country and can be modified to operate on gas.

The other advantages of a gas turbine system are the ease of installation (Ie light weight, low requirement of cooling water), modular maintenance, quick starting and reliable operation. They also have a high temperature exhaust which can be utilised for process heating, thereby increasing the overall thermal efficiency of the system. These engines are in running condition but not certified for aircraft use.

They represent a potential of about 250 MW of generating capacity, which can be harnessed in the manner described and thus save the country over Rs. 100 crores. It may be mentioned that the Dart engine is manufactured indigenously by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). Further, there are plans for indigenous development and manufacture of an industrial gas turbine operating on a coal-based fuel. Such an engine could be easily adapted to work on sludge gas also, and because of its proposed advanced design features, the overall efficiency will be pretty high. Thus, a continuous supply of gas turbines will be available in the country for operation on sludge gas.

These engines could also be operated in dual fuel mode (ie, Diesel + sludge gas or kerosene + sludge gas), to meet any operational requirements. A certain amount of R&D work is involved in converting such engines to operate successfully on sludge gas.

Sludge gas production: Sludge gas is a product of anaerobic fermentation of organic matter present in sewage. In a treatment plant the concentrated sewage sludge is placed in large closed chambers called digestors, for periods up to 4 weeks. During this time fermentation of the sludge takes place due to the action of naturally occurring methanogenic bacteria, which results in the formation of a gas rich in CH 4 and also containing carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2) and a trace of hydrogen sulphide (H2S). At the end of the digestion process, the slurry is stabilised (ie rendered pathogeni cally harmless) and can be dried to yield a valuable fertiliser. An important practical consideration for gas availability at a sewage plant is the problem of gas leakage through hairline cracks invariably present in digestor domes.

Repair of cracked domes presents many problems and a complete solution is yet to be found. One method of overcoming the problem is to devise an evacuation system which continually sucks off the generated gas, which is then stored in a gas holder, thereby reducing the positive pressure differential in the digestors and hence the leakage. The practicality of such a system was first demonstrated by Pai et al (1978) which gave an encouraging turn to an otherwise hopeless situation. There is of course no reason why similar figures cannot be achieved in India also where the climatic factors are generally favourable for this purpose.

Several treatment plants already exist in the country and more are planned in view of increasing population concentrations at metropolitan cities and consequent pollution problems. It is interesting to estimate the energy availability from this renewable source, given the above variability in the generation rate, in addition to which the variation in CH, content has also to be considered. Based on measurements at a sewage plant in Bangalore, a range from 53-4 to 68.3% can be taken as representative of this. With these figures the rage of energy availability per million of population served by the plant can be estimated (table 1). The thermal power feasible is in the range 2-10 MW per million population

Modifications to aero-engine : The acre gas turbine engine is primarily designed for operation on a liquid fuel such as kerosene (Aircraft Turbine Fuel, ATF). In order to operate the engine on a gaseous fuel such as sludge gas, changes have to be made in the fuel injection and control system. Further, for operation on ground, certain sub-systems such as the oil cooler and the governor have to be modified. The R&D efforts in the present project with respect to a Rolls Royce “Dart” turbo prop engine are briefly described .

(1) Development of gas injector: In the “Dart” engine, the fuel (kerosene) is injected into each of the seven combustion chambers through an atomizer, which sprays the fuel in small droplets in the form of a hollow cone. Figure 1 shows a schematic view of a combustion chamber. The fuel spray is introduced downstream of a swirler which imparts a strong swirl to a portion of the combustion air and creates a region of recirculating flow which helps in stabilising the flame in the primary combustion zone.

The objective of the present development was to devise a suitable injector nozzle for sludge gas which could be retrofitted with minimum changes to the combustion and ignition systems. The limitations were mainly that the injector should be introducible into the existing swirler hub. Since the carlorific value of sludge gas is about half that of kerosene (on a mass basis), it follows that for the same thermal input, the mass flow is twice the value. Further since the density of gas is about 2 orders of magnitude less than that of the liquid, it is necessary to use as large a pipe as possible to keep down the pressure losses.

In order to test various gas injectors, a combustion test rig was set up at the Koramangala & Chellaghala (K & C) valley sewage treatment plant. Here one of the combustion chambers of the Dart engine was set up with an independent supply of air and fuel (sludge gas) at essentially atmospheric pressure conditions.

The basis of such testing is that the gas velocities through the combustor are kept at values corresponding to engine conditions. The performance of any injector which works well at atmospheric pressure conditions would be better under engine conditions where the inlet pressure and temperatures are higher. Several injector configurations were fabricated and tested in this rig. These included injectors with multiple radial holes, a single axial hole and a variable radial slit injector


The last-mentioned injector injects the gas in the form of a radial fan jet. The slit gap could be adjusted prior to insertion of the fuel gun into the chamber. The combustion chamber exit was provided with an array of 8 chromelalumel thermocouples so that the temperature distribution at the exit could be determined. The array could be rotated about the combustor axis, to obtain additional data points. The combustor was fitted with the original igniter spark plug.

The injector geometry had an important influence on the combustion characteristics, from the view of obtaining easy ignition, stable combustion and good temperature distribution at the combustor exit. A desirable temperature distribution at the exit is such as to result in the long life of the turbine. The area -averaged temperature traverse quality factor (TTQF), defined as (Tpeak-Taverage)/(delta(Tcombustor)) is a measure usually employed to characterise this feature; a low value being preferable. Amongst the injectors tested the radial-slit was found effective in obtaining good ignition and temperature traverse quality. The slit-width was found to influence the temperature quality factor quite significantly . Subsequently, gas injectors based on this design were fabricated and installed on the engine. A manifolding system was developed to ensure equal supply of gas to each of the seven combustors.

(2)Development of dual fuel injector: The gas injector was further modified to permit operation in a dual fuel mode, ie gas and kerosene. This injector was initially developed in the combustion lab as an air-blast atomizer, and subsequently tested on the engine in single and dual fuel operation.

(3)Accessories and instrumentation: Other modifications to the engine included the development of a digital RPM indicator, a water-cooled oil cooler and high energy ignition units. The digital RPM indicator, apart from indicating engine speed, functione d as an overspeed trip to shut off the sludge gas flow through a pneumatic system in case of turbine speed exceeding a present value. The oil cooler was modified for operation with water as coolant, since for stationary application, the air flow is inadequat e. For starting of the engine, two high energy ignition units operating on 220 V AC were developed in the pilot plant of the laboratory. Other systems developed for operation of the engine were the starting system based on lead acid battery bank, LP fuel feed system for Am, mechanical linkage system for operation of throttle, trimmer, hp cock, speed governor and gas valves, etc.

The instrumentation included panel instruments for indicating major engine variables such as RPM, compressor pressure, jet pipe temperature, torquemeter pressure, oil temperature etc. (4)Demonstration plant: A demonstration plant to investigate the operation of a Rolls Royce Dart turbo-prop engine on sludge gas has been set up at the K & C valley sewage treatment plant of the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB). This treatment plant has a capacity of 168 million litres per day and provides primary sewage treatment, namely sedimentation followed by digestion of the sludge.

When this project was conceived in 1976, the treatment plant had no facilities for gas storage and the availability of the gas was negligible. Investigations indicated that though gas generation was present, most of the gas was leaking away through numerous cracks in the digestor domes. A pilot gas holder of 28 m 3 was set up and a blower installed to extract the gas from the digestor and fill the gas holder. With this system it was possible to minimise the overpressure in the digestor and hence the leakage. It was possible to collect substantial quantities of gas and the proposal to set up a demonstration plant was taken up.

The layout of the demonstration plant is shown in figure 3 and a general view in figure 4. It consists of a gas collection and holder system, a gas conditioning and compression system, a gas turbine engine and an operating system. The gas collection system consists of a gas blower unit 1-5 kW (2 HP) which extracts the gas from any or all of the four digestors and transfers it to the gas holder. The gas holder is of the conventional moving bell type with a capacity of 2266 m 3 (figure 5). It stores the gas at a pressure of about 90 mm of water column.

The gas conditioning system is a filter filled with material for absorbing hydrogen sulphide. Initially steel turnings are being used for this purpose. The gas compression system comprises a 2-stage sliding vane rotary compressor driven by a 90 kW increased-safety motor, an inter-cooler, oil separators, after- cooler and a cyclone. The gas turbine engine is as discussed above and coupled to a variable- pitch propeller for absorbing the power developed. In the next phase, it is proposed to replace the propeller with a generator for electrical power generation. A gear box to match the propeller speed (1200 rpm) to the generator speed (1500 rpm) would also be required.

, (5)Engine operation and performance: The engine was initially operated on its normal fuel and with the original injectors, to establish the functioning of the various systems. Thereafter, one of the seven combustors was fitted with the gas injector described in §3″1 above, with the remaining ones retaining the liquid fuel injectors. The engine was operated in this mode to establish satisfactory ignition and combustion of the sludge gas within the engine. Subsequently, all the seven combustors were fitted with gas injectors and operation with sludge gas alone was attempted. For controlling the start-up of the engine, a by-pass was provided for the gas after the gas compressor, so that it flows back to the gas holder.

The gas flow was also controlled by means of a gate valve upstream of the compressor inlet. It was found that the ignition, acceleration and running of the engine were smooth and easy even when operating purely on sludge gas. The running time was initially limited to a few minutes owing to the small size of the pilot gas holder. The engine has been operated in the dual mode to estimate its performance. The shaft horsepower is estimated from the torque pressure indicator, which is related to the engine torque through a calibration curve.

To ascertain a suitable operating point for ground running, the engine has been operated at several speeds in its recommended cruise range (13,800 to 14,000 RPM). Figure 6 shows the engine performance when operating with Art alone as well as in the dual fuel mode, at a speed of 14,200 RVM. Due to limitations in the gas flow rate of the installed gas compressor, the engine cannot at present be loaded fully when running on gas alone. Hence liquid fuel upto about 27 ~o (in heat value) is injected to obtain sufficient loading in these tests. (6)Techno-economic aspects: In order to make even a tentative estimate of the techno-economics of gas turbine systems operating on sludge gas, it is important to recognize the large variability in the processes concerned. These relate mainly to the generation of the sludge gas and the engine performance parameters.

Thus,two comparative evaluations are carried out: the first one (evaluation I) considers the lower and upper practical limits for gas generation and gas turbine efficiencies in order to get an idea of the range of power generation potential and costs; the second one (evaluation II), considers various engine and system options for an average gas generation situation. This evah?ation helps in placing the various options in perspective and brings out the influence of sludge gas pricing policy on the overall economics.

Comparison is made with a reciprocating engine system operating on diesel or sludge gas. 6.1 Evaluation 1: The electrical energy that can be generated depends on the efficiency and ratings of the gas turbines available. In the present context of using available aero-derivative engines, it is pertinent to examine the Rolls Royce Dart series 6 engines (which power Viscount and Fokker F-27 aircraft), the Dart 7- series which power the AVRO 748 aircraft and the AI-20 Series-A engines which are surplus with IAF. These engines will be operated at derated conditions in order to obtain a longer time between overhauls.

The extent of derating will have to be obtained by conducting trials on demonstration plants. Section 3 of table 1 indicates the range of efficiencies which may be expected and the corresponding electrical outputs. The worst case corresponds to the Dart 6 operating with lean gas which gives an overall efficiency of just under 14%. The AI-20 engine operating with rich gas will give nearly 7 times this output at a system efficiency of around 20% .

6.2 Evaluation 2: It is well known that the efficiency of simple cycle gas turbines is generally lower than that of reciprocating engines which have higher compression ratios. One technique to improve the efficiency of the gas turbine is to incorporate a heat exchanger between the turbine exhaust and the compressor outlet. Significant improvement in efficiency of the order of 50% can be achieved with an additional heat exchanger and engine modifications. In the present evaluation the effects of attaching a heat exchanger, with an effective value of 0.8, to the engine system are considered.

Another important factor considered is the pricing of the sludge gas which will naturally influence the final economics. Three possibilities are considered, viz: —-sludge gas is supplied free of charge; — gas is charged equivalent to coal on a heating value basis, say Rs. 0-23/Nm^3; –gas is charged equivalent to Diesel oil on a heating value basis, say Rs. 2.21/Nm^3 7. Concluding remarks: The tests with the demonstration plant set-up have indicated the basic practicability of the proposed system, in respect of engine modifications, operation and performance.

Of course, further testing to demonstrate the endurance of the engine is still required. The indications of the combustor tests as well as the fortuitously low sulphur content of the gas (as a result of absorption in the gas holder), suggest that long life between overhauls should be possible. Thus ,there is every reason to pursue the proposal further by setting up actual generating plants wherever possible. Also , every effort must be made to set up and optimise sewage treatment plants wherever necessary, in order to reduce pollution and to utilise the by-products such as sludge gas and fertilisers to the maximum extent possible. References : Trevelyan W E 1975 Tropical Science 17:193-209. Pal B R, Abbey D K 1978 Bio-gas production from sewage:

A preliminarystudy, NAL-TM-PR-000/I-78 Barber N R 1977 Industrial Gas: 20-21

two people walking on pier


An individual has a bunch of different emotions inside him, sometimes we can express to other person n sometimes we cannot.. all of us have feelings which are good n bad.. many of us even feel to run from our mistakes, from people, so that we don’t need to face our lives, our mistakes, and sometimes we really need a break from everything that’s going in n around us, and sometimes even I feel that and I feel it’s ok to take a break to have fun, to forget about everything that is going on in n around u n its okie to have fun, n explore or u may even feel to just lay in our bed for a day to just let all the feelings n emotions go aways n it’s fine.

brown steel letter b wall decor
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Sometimes we all try to fight about how we feel, n most of the time we r just running from ourselves, in order to not feel the pain anymore, but in the end, we all have to face the reality

So its okie to understand your feelings and give importance to them. feelings are the reason for a human being to be alive and to feel all the emotions inside him, happy, joy, sad, anger, rage etc.

we should always be happy and accept and understand what going on in our life…

I guess happiness is the best gift you could give to yourself and to others, spreading happiness make you feel happy and satisfied with your life.

photo of man using braille
Photo by Eren Li on

Life is an amazing gift that anybody could get sometimes we get depressed and we feel like we should not even exist and I guess that’s the worst feeling anybody could get in their life…

it’s all about what an individual thinks and believes, in spite of thinking this we could even think that we are so blessed with such a beautiful life and can be happy and spread happiness…

In our life sometimes we have that one special person who is known as the love of our life.. n we care a lot about that person and we feel that he /she is everything n we do have strong feelings about them that they gonna stay with us n not gonna hurt us forever and when all this happens we feel really great…

Life is not at all easy but people who are with us make us feel that is not so much miserable, they help us know the value of life and humanity and the value of love…

love is something that makes us feel so good about ourselves n about everybody else… so I think feelings are one of the most important parts of our life about our existence and if we get a chance to express our feelings to someone we should and on the other hand side we should always choose to understand one’s feelings and should stop hurting it..

because they say that sensitive people have a lot of feelings n emotions inside them and we should never hurt one’s feelings. so in order to stay happy n enjoy our life, we should give importance to our feelings as well as the other person’s feelings as well…

Dopamine levels : Are we in control Or Are we being controlled?
Have you ever had that tenacious thought that why aren’t you able to get things done? Why do those important things seem so boring and why is this big bucket of procrastination hanging in your hand? Well, one would argue that this is because one has likes and dislikes, a person will obviously favour doing the things that he likes more often than what he dislikes but is important.
This seems plausible in some sense, but the world doesn’t work like that, we have to get some things done no matter what we feel about them, that is if one is ambitious to make one’s life meaningful. Let’s get to addictions now, since they play a major role in wasting our elixir of life and raise a monumental question of we being in control.
Now let’s take a look at current young adults’ or teens’ rough daily time utilization – The world median of teens using social media is about 3 hours a day, concentrating on America, which shifts to 6hrs of Entertainment media daily. And behold! That’s just one addiction we are talking about, the giants like ‘Food cravings’ & ‘Drugs’ are yet to be noticed! Dopamine – A neurological reward our likes and dislikes or our channelling of energy to a particular work is controlled by a special neurotransmitter known as Dopamine. This little playful hormone has a fabulous work of rewarding the brain when we concentrate on things that we like.
For example – Let’s say you find pleasure in playing video games and today you played video games for an hour, thy brain shall release dopamine into thy system letting you experience the joy. So far so good, No problem, But now your brain has an increase in the level of Dopamine, and that is going to be a problematic cause later.
Our brain being a smart piece of architecture will induce a slight tolerance against your current dopamine level and when tomorrow, you will sit to enjoy your time playing video games, your brain shall say, ‘Nah, One hour isn’t enough.
I wants more.” See, the interesting point to note here is that it’s the brain’s tolerance that is driving us to spend more time on pleasurable activities and the more time you spend the more dopamine will be secreted, the more peaks this dopamine level achieves the less pleasure you are going to receive.
Reward and Pleasure I would like to cite a little philosophy here, that ‘As an aspect of reward, pleasure provides a definition of reward’. This being true, it is important to note that while all pleasurable stimuli are rewarding, not all rewarding stimuli are pleasurable. Reward and pleasure have a subtle difference between them, reward mainly focuses on receiving something in return while pleasure focuses on the consumption of something that one likes. Reward induces appetitive behaviour while Pleasure induces consummatory behaviour.
Loss of controlThis is where things start to get messy, something that the old times knew very little of. Modern world has provided man with a multitude of savory flavours to try that, man has certainly lost his true-self while running behind wanton phantoms. This is what lexicographers call ‘Madness’. A non-contagious disease that strikes the perfect strings which might lead the human to carry out magnificent miracles or even drown him to those deadly perils of utter misfortune. In this world, where a normal human finds himself subjected to so many pleasurable and rewardable things that he finally faces the fluctuation of dopamine levels and ultimately loses his control over things, he then becomes a prey of his own past, by trying to keep up with his nasty habits that he had once developed by wasting the sweet elixir of life – time. It then becomes steeply difficult for him to really understand his nature for himself, for he is no more himself but a worshipper of materials that keep him pleasurably content.

MaterialismMaterialistic love, Oh! How void and incomplete a thought that a man can possess! The world is so much more than the world that we perceive as material, so much more.

And how wonderful a role Dopamine plays in making people fall into the spider’s traps of ignorance as if nature knows only the values of pleasure and pain. Pleasure and pain, the natural equivalents of biological positive and negative, seem to play an intrinsic fundamental role in nature’s genetic language.

Now that we think of it, it is perfectly natural and humane to run behind pleasurable things may it be material or not, if it pleases the body then it’s very nature of the body to want more and more of it. So much that our demand keeps on increasing, driving us deeper into the realm of madness. But then, are we beasts to let such meagre materialistic things take control of our life? Are we really driving our intellectual property straight into the wall of blissful ignorance ? Dopamine detox – Coming back to the ground An elegant solution to many questions is ‘Time’ itself.

Just as water plays the role of universal solvent in the science of chemistry, Time plays the role of a moderator, a keeper of tranquil harmony, in the algebra of pains and pleasures, and turmoil of emotions.

Dopamine Detox, a rather fancy word for a simple process, involves nothing but abstaining from all the materialistic pleasures, for a specific amount of time, that seemed to have trapped oneself.

The logical explanation behind this detox is pretty trivial, spending sufficient time away from one’s desirable things gets our dopamine levels back to normal.

It can include various things according to one’s lifestyle, for example – keeping away from social media for a week, abstaining from junk food for a month, resisting alcohol, drugs, etc.

By now you must have picked up the underlying idea, we are trying to take things slowly so that we learn to appreciate details of life and the world, by keeping ourselves in control. Go ahead then! Give it a try, for you will only understand its importance when you get your mind free from all sticky external influence and its natural pure state.